Adults eyecare basics
Adults eyecare basics
Live healthy, see healthy
- What is an eye test?
An eye test is a vital health check for your eyes. Every adult needs an eye test every two years, and some people may be advised to have a test more often.
During the eye test the optometrist checks if you need glasses, but they do much more than that too. When you have your eyes examined, the optometrist checks for eye diseases like glaucoma that you might not be aware that you are developing. They can also see signs of conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes when they check the eye.
Many of these conditions are treatable, but it is best to get them detected before they start causing problems. An eye test can save your sight, and help you stay healthy too.
- Who can have a free NHS eye test?
You qualify for a free NHS-funded sight test if:
- you’re aged under 16
- you’re aged 16, 17 or 18 and are in full-time education
- you’re aged 60 or over
- you’re registered as partially sighted (sight impaired) or blind (severely sight impaired)
- you’ve been diagnosed with diabetes or glaucoma
- you’re 40 or over, and your mother, father, brother, sister, son or daughter has been diagnosed with glaucoma
- you’ve been advised by an ophthalmologist (eye doctor) that you’re at risk of glaucoma
- you’re a prisoner on leave from prison
- you’re eligible for an NHS complex lens voucher – your optometrist (optician) can advise you about your entitlement
You’re also entitled to a free NHS sight test if you:
- receive Income Support
- receive Income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance (not Contribution-based)
- receive Pension Credit Guarantee Credit
- receive Income-based Employment and Support Allowance (not Contribution-based)
- are awarded Universal Credit
- are entitled to, or named on, a valid NHS tax credit exemption certificate
- you are named on a valid NHS certificate for full help with health costs (HC2)
People named on an NHS certificate for partial help with health costs (HC3) may also get help.
- How often should I get my eyes tested?
Optometrists recommend that most people should get their eyes tested every two years. For some people, it is important to have an eye test more frequently. Here are a few groups that might be recommended to come back sooner:
- children wearing glasses
- people aged 40 or over with a family history of glaucoma
- people aged 70 or over
- people with diabetes
- What is a spectacle prescription?
If you need glasses, the optometrist will write you a prescription, which will look something like this:
Patient’s Name: Mike Brown
Date: 27th April 2014
Right eye: +3.00/+1.50 x 180
Left eye: +3.25/+1.25 x 175
Near vision add: +1.00
Recommended retest: 2 years
Signed: An Optician
You may be long-sighted, which is also known as ‘hyperopia’. On the spectacle prescription, this would be shown as a plus (+) sign at the start of each line of figures. If you are long-sighted you have to work harder to focus on close objects. If there is a minus (-) sign at the start of the prescription, you are short-sighted and will struggle to see distant objects.
The second figure for each eye, after the slash, shows how astigmatic (or rugby ball-shaped) your eyes are. Correcting this with glasses can make things clearer at all distances.
And over the age of 40 almost everyone starts to find it hard to see small objects close up. The near vision addition will help you see things close up.
- What happens during an eye test?
An eye examination contains a number of routine parts:
- Your history – the optometrist will ask about your medical history, medication and whether anyone in your family has eye problems. You should tell the optometrist about any difficulties you have with focusing, headaches or other problems.
- Checking your eye health – the optometrist will shine a bright light close to your eyes to check the inside and outside of the eyes for signs of disease.
- Checking your vision – the optometrist will ask you to read letters on a chart and use different lenses to see how much your vision can be improved for distant and near objects.
- Checking how your eyes work together – the optometrist will ask you to look at a letter or object and will then cover one eye at a time to see how well your eyes work together.
- Checking the pressure inside your eyes – your eye is filled with fluid, sometimes the pressure of the fluid rises which can cause sight loss. The optometrist should check the pressure inside your eyes at every test once you reach the age of 40. This can be done with a machine that blows a little puff of air on the eye or by resting a small probe on the eye.
- Checking your field of vision – the optometrist will check how well you can see at the edge of your field of vision using a test that flashes faint spots of light.
- At the end of the test – occasionally, the optometrist may ask you to come back for a repeat test, after using some eye drops. These drops relax the eye muscles and let the optometrist see more clearly inside your eyes to get a more accurate result. The drops may sting at first and can cause blurred vision for a short while. If it is a bright day you may want to bring sunglasses with you as you may find the drops make your eyes more sensitive to glare for an hour or so. Do ask someone else to drive you home after eye drops like this.
- Do I have to get my glasses from the same optician who carried out the eye test?
You can choose whether you get your spectacles from the practice where you had your eyes tested, or whether you would like to look elsewhere. Shopping around can save you money, but staying with the same practice can make it easier if any problems arise.
- How does exercise help my eyes stay healthy?
Regular exercise is a healthy lifestyle choice with numerous benefits to general health. Exercise helps you stay fit and your heart stays in good condition. It can also help you control your weight and improve control of high blood pressure or diabetes. All this contributes to better eye health and reduces the risk of problems with the veins inside your eyes and age-related macular degeneration. Remember to use the right eye wear if you play a sport where there is a risk to your eyes. Find out more about the right eyewear for sports here.
- How much exercise should I do?
NHS Direct recommends 30 minutes exercise a day. This is probably enough if you have a reasonably active job, or walk a little during the day. If you drive to work, and park immediately outside your office, then 30 minutes will not be enough. There is lots more information about how exercise helps your eyes stay healthy here.
- Do vitamins help my eyes?
Vitamins A, C and E as part of a healthy diet may have a role in protecting against cataracts, and vitamins C and E might help ward off age related macular degeneration. Don’t start taking lots of supplements: instead make sure your diet is packed with good healthy foods. High vitamin A foods include sweet potatoes, winter squashes, lettuce, dried apricots, cantaloupe, fish, liver, and tropical fruits. Get vitamin A and C from dark green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, carrots, tomatoes and red peppers. Vitamin E can come from nuts, peanuts, avocado, as well as salad dressings made with healthy oils, such as olive oil. If you have an eye condition, speak to your GP or eye specialist before taking a supplement.