Focus on … DED references and further reading

References and Further Reading


    1. ABDO Regs. R.1.5.1 Dispensing optician s must recognise their limitations by seeking further advice and guidance; or refer elsewhere when appropriate. In particular, those wishing to practise in specialised areas must be sure of their ability to do so, by obtaining specialist qualifications as available. All dispensing opticians have a duty to maintain and develop their professional competence throughout their careers, since only in this way can they continue to offer the best possible service to the public.
    2. GOC Competencies 2.7.1, 2.7.2, 8.1.1
      • 2.7.1 Conduct an adequate assessment for the purposes of the optical consultation, including where necessary any relevant medical, family and social history of the patient. This may include current symptoms, personal beliefs or cultural factors.
      • 2.7.2 Provide or arrange any further examinations, advice, investigations or treatment if required for your patient. This should be done in a timescale that does not compromise patient safety and care.
      • 8.1.1 Identifies common diseases of the external eye and related structures


  1. TFOS DEWSII Report – Executive summary, The Ocular Surface 15 (2017) 802-812.
  2. Willcox MDP, Argüeso P, Georgiev G, Holopainen J, Laurie G, Millar T, et al. TFOS DEWS II tear film report. Ocul Surf 2017;15:366e403.5. Craig JP, Nichols KK, Akpek EK, Caffery B, Dua HS, Joo CK, et al. TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification report. Ocul Surf 2017;15:276–283.
  3. Craig JP, Nichols KK, Akpek EK, Caffery B, Dua HS, Joo CK, et al. TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification report. Ocul Surf 2017;15:276–283
  4. Lemp MA, Crews LA, Bron AJ, Foulks GN, Sullivan BD. Distribution of aqueous-deficient and evaporative dry eye in a clinic-based patient cohort: a retrospective study. Cornea 2012;31(5):472–478.
  5. Stapleton F, Alves M, Bunya VY, Jalbert I, Lekhanont K, Malet F, et al. TFOS DEWS II Epidemiology report. Ocul Surf 2017;15:334e65.
  6. Wolffsohn JS, Arita R, Chalmers R, Djalilian A, Dogru M, Dumbleton K, et al. TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report. Ocul Surf 2017;15:539–574.
  7. L. Jones, L.E. Downie, D. Korb, J.M. Benitez-del-Castillo, R. Dana, S.X. Deng, et al. TFOS DEWS II Management and Therapy report, Ocul Surf, 15 (2017), pp. 575-628
  8. Chalmers RL, Begley CG, Caffery B. Validation of the 5-Item Dry Eye Questionnaire (DEQ-5): discrimination across self-assessed severity and aqueous tear deficient dry eye diagnoses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2010;33:55–60
  9. Walt  JGRowe  MMStern  KL Evaluating the functional impact of dry eye: the Ocular Surface Disease Index [abstract].  Drug Inf J. 1997;311436
  10. Armstrong LE, et al. Water intake, water balance, and the elusive daily water requirement. Nutrients. 2018; doi:10.3390/nu10121928.
  11. Christie,C. Updated Dry Eye Guide 2020. Optician, 28 Aug 2020, 18-23.

Further reading


We would like to thank The Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society, Allergan/Chalmers and Oculus for use of images and material within this resource.

Images can be viewed and downloaded free of charge at


Read more about dry eye disease

  1. Introduction, role of the dispensing optician
  2. Definition and classification of dry eye disease
  3. Pathophysiology
  4. Prevalence and epidemiology
  5. Diagnosis
  6. Assessment
  7. Management
  8. Education
  9. References and further reading